Earth is the third planet in the solar system (from the Sun), the largest of the four terrestrial planets, the densest planet in the whole Solar System, and the only astronomical object well-known to support life.
According to the radiometric dating and several other sources of evidence, Earth formed nearly 4.5 billion years ago. Earth gravitationally interacts with any other objects in space, especially the Moon and the Sun.
During one revolution around the Sun, Earth always rotates about its axis 366.26 times, creating one sidereal year or 365.26 solar days. The axis of rotation of the Earth has tilted 23.4° away from the perpendicular of its own orbital plane, creating seasonal variations on the surface of the planet with a period of 1 tropical year (or 365.24 solar days). The Moon is the only Earth’s permanent natural satellite. In fact, its gravitational interaction with the Earth stabilizes the orientation of Earth’s rotational axis, results in the creation of ocean tides, and progressively slows rotational rate of the Earth.
Scientific Estimates on how much longer Earth will continue to harbor life range from 500 million years up to 2.3 billion years. Long-term future of Earth is nearly tied to that of the Sun. Due to the steady accumulation of helium at the core of the Sun, its total luminosity will gradually increase. The Sun’s luminosity will rise by nearly 10 percent over the next 1.1 Ga and by almost 40 percent over the next 3.5 Ga. Climate models reveal that the increase in radiation reaching Earth is likely to have dreadful consequences such as the loss of the oceans.
The rising surface temperature of the Earth will hasten the inorganic CO2 cycle, lowering its concentration to levels severely low for plants (around 10 ppm for C4 photosynthesis) in about 500 to 900 Ma. The lack of vegetation will cause loss of oxygen in the atmosphere; therefore, animal life will vanish within many million years in future. After additional billion years, all surface water will eventually disappear, and the global average temperature will reach 158°F (70°C).
Earth is anticipated to be successfully habitable for almost another 500 Ma from that point, even though this may be prolonged up to 2.3 Ga if the nitrogen is totally removed from the atmosphere. Even if the Sun were firm and eternal, 27 percent of the water in the present-day oceans would incline to the mantle in 1 billion years, because of reduced steam venting from the mid-ocean ridges.
The Sun will change to become a red giant in nearly 5 Ga. Models also predict that the Sun will enlarge to approximately 150,000,000 km (1 AU) that’s almost 250 times its current radius. Hence, the fate of Earth is less clear. As a red giant, it’ll lose approximately 30 percent of its mass, so, with no tidal effects, Earth will move to an orbit 250,000,000 km (1.7 AU) from the Sun when it attains its maximum radius.
Therefore, Earth was once likely to escape envelopment by the extended outer atmosphere of the Sun, although most, if not all, outstanding life would have been damaged by the increased luminosity of the Sun (peaking at nearly 5,000 times its current level). A 2008 simulation reveals that orbit of the Earth will decay because of drag and tidal effects, forcing it to enter the atmosphere of red giant Sun and be vaporized.
Earth is the only planet in the entire solar system where human beings live. From space, Earth is greenish blue in color because of the sunlight being reflected from the Earth’s oceans.
You have lived on Earth all your life, but how much do you actually understand about the ground beneath your feet? You possibly have several fascinating facts rattling around in your brain already, nonetheless, here are ten more fascinating facts about Earth.
1. Earth has a strong magnetic field.
This phenomenon is generated by the nickel-iron core of the planet, along with its fast rotation. It field protects the Earth from the impacts of solar wind.
2. Earth is the only planet not named after a god.
The rest 7 planets in the solar system are all named after Roman goddesses or gods. Even though only Venus, Mercury, Jupiter, Mars, and Saturn were named during prehistoric times, since they were very visible to the naked eye, the Roman technique of naming different planets was reserved after the discovery of Neptune and Uranus.
3. If you drilled a tunnel/hole straight through the core of the Earth and jumped in, it would take you nearly 42 minutes to reach the other side.
4. Before trees became very common, the Earth was fully covered with huge mushrooms!
5. Lightning strikes Earth nearly 8.6 Million times per day or100 times per second.
6. Earth is the only place in our Solar System where water can exist in its three states: liquid, solid and vapor.
7. The Earth lost about 40 percent of its wildlife in the last 40 years, according to the WWF.
8. Earth is the only region in the entire solar system where a full solar eclipse can occur.
9. The Soviets manage to drill the world’s deepest hole into the earth for fourteen years: it is 12,262 meters (40,230 ft.) deep.
10. The highest point on Earth and nearest to space is Mt. Chimborazo in the Andes.