There are three major types of mountains: fold, volcanic, and block. All 3 types are formed from plate tectonics: when some portions of the Earth’s crust forcibly move, crumple, and dive. Isostatic uplift, compressional forces, and intrusion of igneous matter force the surface rock upward, forming a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of this feature makes it either a hill or, if greater and steeper, a mountain. Main mountains tend to form in long linear arcs, signifying tectonic plate activity and boundaries. Mountains erode gradually through the action of weather conditions, rivers, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits but may occur in large mountain ranges.
High elevations on mountains often produce colder climates than at sea level. These colder climates intensely affect the ecosystems of mountains: various elevations have different plants and animals. Due to less hospitable climate and terrain, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for recreation purposes, like mountain climbing and resource extraction.
Interesting Mountain Facts:
1. Mountains make up almost 1/5 of the world’s landscape and offer a home to at least 1/10 of the world’s people.
2. Heights of mountains are usually given as heights above sea level.
3. The highest peak in the world is Mt. Everest in the Himalayas. It is approximately 8.850.17m(29036 feet) tall.
4. Ben Nevis is also the tallest mountain in Great Britain.
5. The tallest recognized mountain in the entire solar system is Olympus Mons, located on the planet, Mars.
6. Mountains exist under the surface of the sea!
7. Mountains occur regularly in oceans than on land; some islands are mountains peaks coming out of the water.
8. Approximately 80% of Earth’s fresh water originates in the mountains.
9. All mountain ecosystems have one main characteristic in common-quick changes in climate, altitude, soil and vegetation cover within very short distances.
10. In 1974, a German team which had prepared to climb Annapurna 4 was eventually reported to have reached the top (summit) of Annapurna 2 by mistake.